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Genetic engineering is a process that alters the genetic structure of an organism by either removing or introducing DNA. Genetic engineering is the direct manipulation of an organism's genes using biotechnology. Genetic engineering has been applied in numerous fields including research, medicine, industrial biotechnology and agriculture. By knocking out genes responsible for certain conditions it is possible to create animal model organisms of human diseases. In research GMOs are used to study gene function and expression through loss of function, gain of function, tracking and expression experiments. Producing hormones, vaccines and other drugs, genetic engineering has the potential to cure genetic diseases through gene therapy. This session discusses more about genetics and genetic engineering.
Cancer is a genetic disease. Genes carry the instructions to make proteins, which do much of the work in our cells. Certain gene changes can cause cells to evade normal growth controls and become cancerous. Genetic changes that promote cancer can be inherited from our parents if the changes are present in germ cells, which are the reproductive cells of the body eggs and sperm. Such changes, called germline changes are found in every cell of the offspring. Some cancer-causing gene changes increases the production of a protein that makes cells grow. Others result in the production of a misshapen, and therefore nonfunctional, form of a protein that normally repairs cellular damage. This session discusses more about cancer genetics.
Evolutionary genetics is the study of how genetic variation leads to evolutionary change. It includes subfields such as the evolution of genome structure, the genetic basis of speciation and adaptation, and genetic change in response to selection within populations. Evolutionary genetics deals with the studies relating to the integration of genetics. This field attempts to study the evolution in terms of changes in gene and genotype frequencies within populations. As such four evolutionary forces namely mutation, random genetic drift, natural selection, and gene flow act within and among populations causing micro-evolutionary changes; and these processes are sufficient to account for macro-evolutionary patterns. This session discusses more about Evolutionary Genetics and the challenges it poses in changing patterns of biodiversity observed in nature.
The process of cloning introduces the genetic mutations, and there seems no immediate way around the problem according to Rudolf Jaenisch, a genetic scientist. The most common cloning method is called nuclear transfer and involves taking the nucleus from an egg cell replacing it with the nucleus from a cell of the animal to be cloned, and then Reprogramming the creation so the egg begins dividing as if it had been fertilized by a sperm. Even before 1997, when Dolly, the sheep became the first mammal to be cloned from an adult cell, researchers have known that cloning is difficult. There are hundreds of abnormal genes in cloned mice, which explain why so many cloned animals die at or before birth and proves that it would be irresponsible to clone a human being, scientists said. Rudolf Jaenisch, a genetic scientist said in effect that "I think this confirms suspicions that I have always had and that many others had that cloning is a very inefficient method at this point. It is very irresponsible to think this method could be used for the reproductive cloning of humans. This session discusses more about gene mutation and cloning.
Plant Genetics and Genomics deal with the study of probing nucleic acids information-carrying capacity on any scale from functional studies of single genes to genome-wide surveys; and from single-organism assays to population or comparative research. Plant genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity specifically in Plants. Plant genetics is similar in many ways to animal genetics but differs in a few key areas. It is a field of biology and botany, but intersects frequently with many other life sciences and is strongly linked with the study of information systems. This session discusses more about the latest developments in plant genetics.
It is the duty of Genetic Counselors to counsel patients and family members on what genetics means to them and explain in detail about genetic disorders, and the risk it carries. Gene Therapy deals with the treatment of diseases by replacing, manipulating or supplementing a gene. Gene Therapy also include normal gene being inserted at random into the genome so that functioning protein is made. Changing an individual's DNA sequence to fix a non-functional gene; altering a person's genotype in the area where it is malfunctioning. Abnormal gene is repaired through site directed mutagenesis. Administer vector into human cells through defunct viruses which evolved into efficient ways of inserting DNA into genome. This session discusses more about gene therapy and genetic counseling.
Clinical genetics involves the study, counselling and treatment of individuals and families with heritable disorders. Diagnostic tools include standard ontologies for describing dysmorphology and traits, pedigree analysis, disease locus mapping by linkage or homozygosity, karyotyping, genome sequencing and genotyping. Clinical Genetics is the medical specialty which provides a diagnostic service and Genetic Counselling for individuals or families with, or at risk of, conditions which may have a genetic basis. The aim of Genetic Services is to help those affected by a genetic disorder to live and reproduce as normally as possible. Clinical genetics deal with chromosomal abnormalities, which cause birth defects, mental retardation and/or reproductive and many more problems. This session discusses more about clinical genetics.
Epigenetics is one of the groundbreaking areas of science over the past decade. We know that stress, toxins, socio-economic status, bullying, racism and the lifestyles of our parents and grandparents can all turn on or off certain genes in our DNA. Epigenetics deals with this kind of study; and how environmental factors and lifestyle choices influence our genes. The field is radically changing how we think about nature and nurture giving it an impact far beyond the lab. In focusing on the environment as a cause for many unwanted conditions, epigenetics has the potential to advance social justice. Social values often decide how we implement science, rather than the other way round. This session discusses more about eugenics, euthenics and epigenetics.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome. Most genetic disorders are quite rare and affect one person in every several thousands or millions. A genetic disorder is any disease that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's genome, the person's entire genetic makeup. The abnormality can range from minuscule to major; from a discrete mutation in a single base in the DNA of a single gene to a gross chromosome abnormality involving the addition or subtraction of an entire chromosome or set of chromosomes. Some types of recessive gene disorders confer an advantage in certain environments when only one copy of the gene is present. This session discusses more about genetics and genetic disorders.
Immungenetics is the branch of medical genetics that explores the relationship between the immune system and genetics. Identification of genes defining the immune defects may identify new target genes for therapeutic approaches. Immunology involves the study of immune system and its functions to protect us from pathogens like bacteria and viruses, while at the same time it also concentrates on harmless or beneficial microbes in our environment. Alternatively, genetic variations can also help to define the immunological pathway leading to disease. This session discusses more about immunology and immunogenetics and the advancements made in its research and other developments. This session discusses more about immunology and immunogenetics.
A biobank is a type of biorepository that stores biological samples of humans for use in research. Biobanks is an important resource in medical research which supports many types of contemporary research relating to genomics and personalized medicine.. The goal of tissue engineering is to assemble functional constructs that restore, maintain, or improve damaged tissues or whole organs including artificial skin and cartilage. Tissue Engineering is a broad field that includes regenerative medicine wherein the body uses its own systems, sometimes with help foreign biological material to recreate cells and rebuild tissues and organs. Tissue Engineering hopes to focus on cures instead of treatments for complex, often chronic, diseases. This session discusses more about tissue engineering and biobanking.
The study of stem cells is one of the most exciting areas of contemporary biomedical research. Stem Cell Research & Therapy will act as a highly active forum for both basic and translational research into stem cell biology and therapies. With the help of cutting-edge technologies the stem cell research and therapy will play a significant role in bringing together the critical information to synergize stem cell science with stem cell therapies. The field has progressed to the clinic and it is important that this pathway is underpinned by excellent science and rigorous standards of clinical research. The session discusses more about stem cell research and therapy and the advances it made in research field
Animal genetics and breeding has enhanced the output and production of live stock. Thanks to Animal Genetic and Breeding and its discoveries how age-old livestock production problems have been solved to help producers and consumers. The field of animal breeding and genetics research holds a lot of promise what with the projects like bovine gene mapping and DNA sequencing. Using state of the art tools and facilities the researchers have been contributing to the field of animal biotechnology on a worldwide level. Animal breeding with the help of selective breeding of domestic animals intent on improving desirable and heritable qualities in the next generation. Animal breeders should improve the desirable qualities of animals with the need for genetic diversity and long-term sustainability of the breeding program. This session will discuss more about the scientific concepts of animal genetics and breeding.
Molecular Biotechnology deals in areas of interest which include the stability and expression of cloned gene products, cell transformation, gene cloning systems and the production of recombinant proteins, protein purification and analysis, transgenic species, developmental biology, mutation analysis, the applications of DNA fingerprinting, RNA interference, and PCR technology, microarray technology, proteomics, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, plant molecular biology, microbial genetics, gene probes and the diagnosis of disease, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic agents, vaccines, gene targeting, gene therapy, stem cell technology and tissue engineering, antisense technology, protein engineering and enzyme technology, monoclonal antibodies, glycobiology and glycomics, and agricultural biotechnology. Genetic engineering techniques have matured greatly in recent years. Use of well-defined GEM and a cohort of GER models enables us to accelerate the rate at which we dissect elemental biological mechanisms of health and disease, and develop new, rationally designed drugs to target a host of previously incurable conditions. This session discusses about the latest in molecular biotechnology and genetic engineering techniques.
Microbial genomes encompass all chromosomal and extra chromosomal genetic material. Microbial genomes are widely variable and reflect the enormous diversity of bacteria, archaea and lower eukaryotes. Bacterial genomes usually consist of a single circular chromosome, but species with more than one chromosome linear chromosomes and combinations of linear and circular chromosomes also exist. Plasmids can be transferred via horizontal DNA transfer from on cell of the same generation to another, mediating the rapid evolution of many different organisms. The study of microbial genomes helps us to better understand the broader biology of bacteria, and how their genetic composition contributes to their tangible characteristics and to understand the importance of evolution of bacteria. Bacteria often evolve not just through small, single nucleotide level changes but through quantum evolutionary events. This session discusses more about microbial genomics.
Translational medicine, an emerging discipline on the frontier of basic science and medical practice, has the potential to enhance the speed and efficiency of the drug development process through the utilization of pharmacogenetics. Pharmacogenetics is the study of genetic causes of individual variations in drug response which deals with the simultaneous impact of multiple mutations in the genome that may determine the patient’s response to drug therapy.? In order to accelerate the development of new compounds, novel approaches in drug development are required. This session discusses more about the use of translational medicine and pharmacogenetics in the fields of cardiovascular, pulmonary, oncological, bone diseases and many more other diseases.
The field of regenerative medicine encompasses numerous strategies, including the use of materials and de novo generated cells as well as various combinations thereof to take the place of missing tissue effectively replacing it both structurally and functionally, or to contribute to tissue healing. The body's innate healing response may also be leveraged to promote regeneration although adult humans possess limited regenerative capacity in comparison with lower vertebrates. This session discusses preclinical and early clinical work to alter the physiological environment of the patient by the introduction of materials, living cells, or growth factors either to replace lost tissue or to enhance the body's innate healing and repair mechanisms will then be reviewed. Also the strategies for improving the structural sophistication of implantable grafts and effectively using recently developed cell sources will also be discussed in this session of regenerative medicine and development.
The original sequencing methodology known as Sanger chemistry uses specifically labeled nucleotides to read through a DNA template during DNA synthesis. This sequencing technology requires a specific primer to start the read at a specific location along the DNA template, and record the different labels for each nucleotide within the sequence. In order to sequence longer sections of DNA, a new approach called shotgun sequencing was developed during Human Genome Project (HGP). In this approach, genomic DNA is enzymatically or mechanically broken down into smaller fragments and cloned into sequencing vectors in which cloned DNA fragments can be sequenced individually. The complete sequence of a long DNA fragment can be eventually generated by these methods by alignment and reassembly of sequence fragments based on partial sequence overlaps. Among the five commercially available platforms, the Roche/454 FLX, the Illumina/Solexa Genome Analyzer, and the Applied Biosystems (ABI) SOLiD Analyzer are currently dominating the market. The other two platforms, the Polonator G.007 and the Helicos HeliScope have just recently been introduced and are not widely used. Additional platforms from other manufacturers are likely to become available within the next few years and bring new and exciting technologies, faster sequencing speed, and a more affordable price. Methodologies used by each of the current available NGS systems are discussed here in this session.
Molecular docking is an invaluable tool in the field of molecular biology, computational structural biology, computer-aided drug designing, and pharmacogenomics. Molecular docking has become an important common component of the drug discovery toolbox, and its relative low-cost implications and perceived simplicity of use has made it so popular among the academicians. Several considerations that can greatly improve the success and enrichment of true bioactive hit compounds are commonly overlooked at the initial stages of a molecular docking study. This session will discuss all of these considerations including protonation states, active site waters, separating actives from decoys, consensus docking and molecular mechanics generalized-Born/surface area (MM-GBSA) rescoring, and incorporation of pharmacophoric constraints, and inherent difficulties of a structure-based drug design study.
Functional genomics is a field of molecular biology that attempts to make use of the vast wealth of data given by genomic and genome sequencing projects and RNA sequencing to describe gene and protein functions and interactions. Functional genomics focuses on the dynamic aspects such as gene transcription, translation, regulation of gene expression and protein–protein interactions. The goal of functional genomics is to understand the function of larger numbers of genes or proteins eventually all components of a genome. This session discusses the functional genomics and its studies of natural genetic variation over time such as an organism's development or space such as its body regions, as well as functional disruptions such as mutations.